Page:The Present State of Peru.djvu/486

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latter having in its favour both history, tradition, and report, we cannot refuse our assent to its superiority over the Beni.

The Apurimac has its source in the wild heaths of Condoroma, in the province of Tinta, in 16 degrees of south latitude. It flows impetuously to the E. toward the Cordillera of Vilcanota, to the distance of three leagues, when, suddenly shifting its course to the W., it separates that Cordillera from the province of Chumbibilcas. It now enters the provinces of Aimaraes and Cotabambas, and directs its rapid course to the N. W., leaving to the E. the province of Cusco. In passing through that of Abancay, it declines to the N. E., by which direction it forms, from its primitive source, an arc that receives so many torrents on either side, as to prevent it from being longer fordable. Determining its career to the N., two leagues below the bridge of Apurimac, it forces its passage through the lofty territory of the Andes, running between mountains of incredible elevation, by which it is supplied with abundant waters. In 13 degrees 10 minutes, the river of Cocharcas, or Pampas, which descends from the heights of Huancavelica, flows into it to the W. The Apurimac continues its course, collecting the waters poured down from the mountains of Guanca; and, in 12 degrees 15 minutes, is joined to the E. by the river Quillambamba, Urubamba, or Vilcamayo,[1] the primitive name of which is changed into that of Enec y Taraba. In 12 degrees 6 minutes, it is joined to the W. by the river of Jauxa, named by the Indians Mantaro;[2]


    and the Jesuits of Quito, on the subject of the town and missions of San Miguel of the Conivos. Maps were demanded by the royal audience, to the end that a competent judgment might be formed of the litigated point. It was then that father Samuel Fritz drew up the one which was printed at Quito in 1707, and in which the Tunguragua is named Maranon, and the Faro, Ucayali, or Ucallali, a word which, signifying confluence, was applied by the inhabitants to that of the Faro and Tunguragua. Hence arose the error of father Fritz. By a discordance of a similar nature, father Acuna asserted, that the Napo was the Maranon. The degree of credit which the greater part of the Jesuits had justly acquired among the distinguished men of letters of those times [Sarmiento, Demonstrat. t. i. § 439, 458, et seq.], may account for the nomenclature of father Fritz having been generally and implicitly received.

  1. The Quillambamba originates in the heights of Vilcanota, in 15 degrees 25 minutes; and irrigating, with a copious stream of water, a portion of which it receives from several rivers, the delightful valley of Urubamba, as well as the eastern boundaries of Anaibamba and Vilcabamba, flows into the Apurimac.
  2. The Mantaro derives its source in the plains of Bombon, under the denomination of the river of Jauxa, from the lake Chinchaycocha, which is nine leagues in length, and two leagues and a half in breadth, in 11 degrees 3 minutes. It takes a southern direction, and receives, on the east and west, various torrents. After having crossed the valley of Jauxa, it winds to the east, receiving, among other rivers, at the distance of three leagues from the bridge of Iscuchaca, a powerful branch which descends from Huancavelica. In its effort to force a passage through the Cordillera of Guanca, it returns towards